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How the azimuth change and the angle of inclination affect the total annual electricity production?

How the azimuth change and the angle of inclination affect the total annual electricity production?

Depending on changes in the azimuth and angle of inclination of the panels are presented in the following instructions.

1. Change in total annual production depending on the azimuth change.

The reference production level is the total annual production with the azimuth set to 0 degrees and the slope angle of 25 degrees.
During tests, we maintain a constant distance between panels, a constant angle of inclination and a constant power value under steady conditions.

As you can see in the graphic above, our reference output is 16,396 kWh (Szacowana produkcja roczna). In the following sections, the photos will present the following values of the deviation from the azimuth towards the west in steps of 10 degrees.

1.1.The azimuth of the panels 10 degrees

1.2. The azimuth of the panels 20 degrees

1.3. The azimuth of the panels 30 degrees

1.4. The azimuth of the panels 40 degrees

1.5. The azimuth of the panels 50 degrees

1.6. The azimuth of the panels 60 degrees

1.7. The azimuth of the panels 70 degrees

1.8. The azimuth of the panels 80 degrees

1.9. The azimuth of the panels 90 degrees

In conclusion, we see a clear decrease in power along with a stronger deflection of the installation from the south (or north depending on the hemisphere). The entire summary is presented below in graphic form.


Lp.
Azimuth [stopnie] Annual production[kWh] Decline in production[kWh]
0 0 16396 0
1 10 16370 26
2 20 16292 104
3 30 16166 230
4 40 15999 397
5 50 15798 598
6 60 15573 823
7 70 15333 1063
8 80 15088 1308
9 90 14851 1545

As we can see, to some extent the change in azimuth does not cause significant changes in the total annual production.
For example, changing the orientation of the panels relative to the south by 10 degrees causes a decrease in production by 15 kWh, but a change by 30 degrees already causes losses of 230 kWh, and a total change of position to the west direction is 1.55 MWh loss.

2. Changing the angle of inclination of the panels relative to the sea level.

In this section, we will discuss the change in total annual output relative to the change in the angle of inclination of the PV panels.
As a reference level, we will take the flat position of the panels, i.e. the angle of 0 degrees, no deviation from the south (azimuth 0 degrees) and constant power under steady conditions.
During the tests, the distance between the panels is kept constant and the shading and the area of the panels distribution related to the need for greater spacing of rows with increasing inclination angle are not taken into account.

As we can see, our reference production is 14 730 kWh (Szacowana produkcja roczna). In the following sections, the photos will present successive values of the tilt angle, changing in steps of 5 or 10 degrees.

2.1. The angle of inclination of the panels is 10 degrees

2.2. The angle of inclination of the panels is 15 degrees

2.3. The angle of inclination of the panels is 25 degrees

2.4. The angle of inclination of the panels is 30 degrees

2.5. The angle of inclination of the panels is 35 degrees

2.6. The angle of inclination of the panels is 40 degrees

2.7. The angle of inclination of the panels is 45 degrees

2.8. The angle of inclination of the panels is 50 degrees

2.9. The angle of inclination of the panels is 60 degrees

2.10. The angle of inclination of the panels is 70 degrees

2.11. The angle of inclination of the panels is 80 degrees

2.12. The angle of inclination of the panels is 89 degrees (it cannot be 90 degrees)

Lp. Inclination [stopnie] Annual production [kWh] Decline in production [kWh]
1 0 14730 1783
2 10 15613 900
3 15 15952 561
4 20 16214 299
5 25 16396 117
6 30 16497 16
7 35 16513 0
8 40 16445 68
9 45 16293 220
10 50 16056 457
11 60 15338 1175
12 70 14311 2202
13 80 13005 3508
14 89 11629 4884

As we can see, the values of the total annual production reach the highest value at the angle of inclination equal to 35 degrees. However, a setting between 30-40 degrees does not generate much visible losses in the total annual production. On the other hand, it is clearly visible that the inclination angle of less than 20 degrees and greater than 60 is unfavorable due to the fact that the annual losses there are already greater than 1 MWh.